D³ database

Exposure of Diaspores

Summary

 

EXPOSURE OF DIASPORES is a categorical trait that describes the accessibility of dispersal vectors (e.g. wind, animals) to the generative diaspores within the infructescence.

 

 

Trait description

 

EXPOSURE OF DIASPORES (column code: DIA_EXPOSURE) is coded as one of the categories listed and described below (Tab. 1). Category four is reserved for taxa without generative diaspores or generally no dispersal.

 

Tab. 1. Categories for EXPOSURE OF DIASPORES

No.

Category

Description

Examples

1

exposed

Dispersal vectors (e.g. wind, animals) have more or less unobstructed access to the diaspores:


Hull structures do not hide the diaspore for/in the time span of ripening and dispersal. In general, the diaspore is exposed and accessible over a longer period.

Acer, Arrhenatherum, Carex, Galium, Lonicera, Malus, Peucedanum, Polygonatum, Prunus, Pulsatilla, Quercus, Ranunculus, Rosa, Rubus, Senecio, Sorbus, Vaccinium

Agrimonia procera - diaspores (fruits) exposed.

2

covered partly

Dispersal vectors (e.g. wind, animals) have limited access to the diaspores:

Hull structures cover parts of the diaspore. For/in the time span of ripening and dispersal the diaspore is less accessible over a longer period.

Abies, Epilobium, Juncus, Lamium, Luzula, Phleum, Populus, Teucrium Scutellaria, Sedum

Teucrium scorodonia - diaspores (four nutlets) covered partly.

3

enclosed

Dispersal vectors (e.g. wind, animals) have hardly any direct access to the diaspores:

Hull structures hide the diaspore (nearly) complete. For/in the time span of ripening and dispersal the diaspore is not or hardly accessible.

Dianthus, Epipactis, Gentiana, Lilium, Orchis, Papaver, Plantago, Primula, Silene, Veronica, Viola

Papaver rhoeas - capsules with enclosed diaspores (seeds).

4

not applicable

Species without generative diaspores:

Sterile taxa or taxa with specialized and unspecialized vegetative parts of the plants acting as diaspores.

Allium (bulbils), Betula x aurata (sterile), Elodea (turions)

Allium cepa - infructescence with bulbils

Data sources

 

EXPOSURE OF DIASPORES was categorized by visual inspection of diaspores and fruits and infructescences or respective images in addition to an intensive literature and web research.

 

 

Literature

 

Hegi, G. (1908ff): Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. Zahlreiche Bände in drei Auflagen. J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 2. und 3. Auflage bei Paul Parey und Weissdorn-Verlag.

 

Jäger, E.J. & Werner, K. (1995) Rothmaler - Exkursionsflora von Deutschland. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband. Fischer, Jena.