D³ database

References

Acknowledgements

 

We would like to thank all persons who helped with data collection, preparation, measurements and design of the website, especially (in alphabetical order): Cornelia Anken, Klaus Grommet, Michaela Grote, Henrik de Haan, Fatima El'Hannouti, Rana Kaviani, Elena Krall, Barbara Kramer, Karl-Heinz Lenker, Sara Martin, Christian Mattheyer, Svenja Meierfrankenfeld, Jasmine Salmen, Michael Schwinn, Ralf Thierfelder, Michael Uebeler, Franziska Walther.

 

It is not possible to mention all colleagues and institutions that helped us collecting the diaspores or stimulated the development of the database during the last years. Most important, we wish to thank Peter Poschlod, Susanne Bonn and Michael Kleyer for discussion and earlier work on databases. Furthermore, we would like to cordially thank all of them!

 

This work has been funded by the programme LOEWE - 'Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz' of Hesse's Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts, and by the German Research Foundation (DFG: TA 311/2-3).

 

 

Below you can find the list of references (publications and websites).

 

Publications

 

 

Adams, J. (1907) Vitality of seeds swallowed by animals. Irish Naturalist, 16, 367.

 

Adler, F.R. & Karban, R. (1994) Defended Fortresses or Moving Targets - Another Model of Inducible Defenses Inspired by Military Metaphors. American Naturalist, 144, 813-832.

 

Agami, M. & Waisel, Y. (1988) The Role of Fish in Distribution and Germination of Seeds of the Submerged Macrophytes Najas-Marina L and Ruppia-Maritima L. Oecologia, 76, 83-88.

 

Agnew, A.D.Q. & Flux, J.E.C. (1970) Plant dispersal by hares (Lepus Capensis L.) in Kenya. Ecology, 58, 681-686.

 

Andersen, M. (1991) Mechanistic models for the seed shadows of wind-dispersed plants. American Naturalist, 137, 476-497.

 

Andersen, M.C. (1992) An analysis of variability in seed settling velocities of several wind-dispersed Asteraceae. American Journal of Botany, 79, 1087-1091.

 

Andersen, M.C. (1993) Diaspore Morphology and Seed Dispersal in Several Wind-Dispersed Asteraceae. American Journal of Botany, 80, 487-492.

 

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Askew, A.P., Corker, D., Hodkinson, D.J. & Thompson, K. (1997) A new apparatus to measure the rate of fall of seeds. Functional Ecology, 11, 121-125.

 

Augspurger, C.K. (1986) Morphology and dispersal potential of wind-dispersed diaspores of neotropical trees. American Journal of Botany, 73, 353-363.

 

Baiges, J.C. & Blanche, C. (1991) Seed Morphology of Iberian and Balearic Species of the Genus Euphorbia L (Euphorbiaceae) .2. Subgen Esula Pers .1. Bulletin De La Societe Botanique De France-Lettres Botaniques, 138, 321-327.

 

Bakker, D. (1960) A comparative life-history study of Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Tussilago farfara L., the most troublesome weeds in the newly reclaimes polders of the former Zuiderzee. British Ecological Society.

 

Bakker, J.P. (1985) Nature Management by Grazing an Cutting. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

 

Bakker, J.P. (1985) The Impact of Grazing on Plant-Communities, Plant-Populations and Soil-Conditions on Salt Marshes. Vegetatio, 62, 391-398.

 

Bakker, J.P.(1989): Nature management by grazing and cutting. - Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

 

Bakker, J.P., de Vries, Y. (1992): Germination and early establishment of lower salt-marsh species in grazed and mown salt marsh. Journal of Vegetation Science 5, 247-252.

 

Bakker, J.P., Dijkstra, M. & Russchen, P.T. (1985) Dispersal, germination and early establishment of halophytes and glycophytes on a grazed and abandoned salt-marsh gadient. New Phytologist, 101, 291-305.

 

Bakker, J.P., Poschlod, P., Strykstra, R.J., Bekker, R.M. & Thompson, K. (1996) Seed banks and seed dispersal: important topics in restoration ecology. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45, 461-490.

 

Beattie, A.J. & Lyons, N. (1975) Seed Dispersal in Viola (Violaceae) - Adaptations and Strategies. American Journal of Botany, 62, 714-722.

 

Bekker, R.M., Bakker, J.P., Grandin, U., Kalamees, R., Milberg, P., Poschlod, P., Thompson, K. & Willems, J.H. (1998) Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil: indicators of seed longevity. Functional Ecology, 12, 834-842.

 

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Berg RY (1983) Plant distribution as seen from plant dispersal: General principles and basic modes of plant dispersal. In: Kubitzki K (ed) Dispersal and Distribution. Sonderband des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins inHamburg. Parey, Hamburg, 13-36.

 

Berger,A. (1929): Kakteen pp. Stuttgart. Ulmer. pp. 346.

 

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Bill, H.-C., Poschlod, P., Reich, M. & Plachter, H. (1999) Experiments and observations on seed dispersal by running water in alpine floodplane. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH, 65, 13-28.

 

Blackshaw, R.E. & Rode, L.M. (1991) Effect of Ensiling and Rumen Digestion by Cattle on Weed Seed Viability. Weed Science, 39, 104-108.

 

Blattner, F. & Kadereit, J.W. (1991) Patterns of Seed Dispersal in 2 Species of Papaver L under near-Natural Conditions. Flora, 185, 55-64.

 

Blomqvist, M.M., Bekker, R.M. & Vos, P. (2003) Restoration of ditch bank plant species richness: The potential of the soil seed bank. Applied Vegetation Science, 6, 179-188.

 

Blomqvist, M.M., Vos, P., Klinkhamer, P.G.L. & ter Keurs, W.J. (2003) Declining plant species richness of grassland ditch banks - a problem of colonisation or extinction? Biological Conservation, 109, 391-406.

 

Bockelmann, A.-C. (1997) Schafe als Vektoren für die Ausbreitung von Diasporen - Versuche mit einer Schafattrape auf den Porphyrkuppem bei Halle (Saale). Abschlußbericht des Teilvoprhabens im FIFB-Projekt.

 

Bojanský, V. & Fargašová, A. (2007): Atlas of seeds and fruits of Central and East-European flora. The Carpathian Mountains region. Springer, Dordrecht.

 

Bonn, S. & Poschlod, P. (1998) Ausbreitungsbiologie der Pflanzen Mitteleuropas. Grundlagen und kulturhistorische Aspekte. Quelle & Meyer, Wiesbaden.

 

Bonn, S. & Poschlod, P. (1998) Bedeutung dynamischer Prozesse für die Ausbreitung von Pflanzenarten seit dem Postglazial. Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz, 56, 147-171.

 

Bonn, S. (2004) Dispersal of plants in the Central European landscape - dispersal process and assessment of dispersal potential exemplified for endozoochory. PhD-Thesis, University of Regensburg, Regensburg.

 

Bonn, S., Poschlod, P. & Tackenberg, O. (2000) Diasporus - a database for diaspore dispersal - concept and applications in case studies for risk assessment. Zeitschrift für Ökologie und Naturschutz, 9, 85-97.

 

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Bremer, B. & Eriksson, O. (1992) Evolution of Fruit Characteristics and Dispersal Modes in the Tropical Family Rubiaceae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 47, 79-95.

 

Brodie, H.J. (1955) Springboard plant dispersal mechanisms operated by rain. Canadian Journal of Botany, 33, 156-167.

 

Brouwer, W. & Stählin, A. (1975) Handbuch der Samenkunde für Landwirtschaft, Gartenbau und Forstwirtschaft. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt.

 

Brugbauer, R. (1990) Auswirkungen der Hochwasser- und Windausbreitung von Samen auf die Zusammensetzung des Samenspeichers und der Pflanzendecke an Pionierstandorten des Emsufers. 19.

 

Brunet, J. & von Oheimb, G. (1998) Colonization of secondary woodlands by Anemone nemorosa. Nordic Journal of Botany, 18, 369-377.

 

Bullock, J.A. & Moy, I.L. (2004) Plants as seed traps: inter-specific interference with dispersal. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology, 25, 35-41.

 

Bullock, J.M. & Clarke, R.T. (2000) Long distance seed dispersal by wind: measuring and modelling the tail of the curve. Oecologia, 124, 506-521.

 

Bullock, J.M., Moy, I.L., Coulson, S.J. & Clarke, R.T. (2003) Habitat-specific dispersal: environmental effects on the mechanisms and patterns of seed movement in a grassland herb Rhinanthus minor. Ecography, 26, 692-704.

 

Bulow-Olsen, A. (1984) Diplochory in Viola - a Possible Relation between Seed Dispersal and Soil Seed Bank. American Midland Naturalist, 112, 251-260.

 

Cappers, R.T.J., Bekker, R.M. & Jans, J.E.A. (2006): Digital Seed Atlas of the Netherlands. Barkhuis. Eelde (NL).

 

Carey, P.D. & Watkinson, A.R. (1993) The Dispersal and Fates of Seeds of the Annual Grass Vulpia-Ciliata. Journal of Ecology, 81, 759-767.

 

Carey, P.D. (1998) Modelling the spread of Himantoglossum hircinum (L.) Spreng. at a site in the south of England. Botanical Journal of the Linnean society, 126, 159-171.

 

Cavers, P. B., M. I. Heagy, et al. (1979). The biology of canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande." Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 217-229.

 

Cavers, P.B. & Steel, M.G. (1984) Patterns of Change in Seed Weight over Time on Individual Plants. American Naturalist, 124, 324-335.

 

Clausen, P., Nolet, B.A., Fox, A.D. & Klaassen, M. (2002) Long-distance endozoochorous dispersal of submerged macrophyte seeds by migratory waterbirds in northern Europe- a critical review of possibilities and limitations. Acta Oecologica, 23, 191-203.

 

Clifford, H.T. (1956) Seed dispersal on footwear. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles, 2, 129-131.

 

Clifford, H.T. (1959) Seed dispersal by motor vehicl. Journal of Ecology, 47, 311-315.

 

Coates-Estrada, R. & Estrada, A. (1988) Frugivory and Seed Dispersal in Cymbopetalum-Baillonii (Annonaceae) at Los-Tuxtlas, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 4, 157-172.

 

Cody, M.L. & Overton, J.M. (1996) Short-term evolution of reduced dispersal in island plant populations. Journal of Ecology, 84, 53-61.

 

Colbach, N. & Sache, I. (2001) Blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) seed dispersal from a single plant and its consequences on weed infestation. Ecological Modelling, 139, 201-219.

 

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Cook, C.D.K. (1987) Dispersion in aquatic and amphibious vascular plants. Plant life in aquatic and amphibious plants (ed R. M. M. Crawford), pp. 179-190. Blackwell, Oxford.

 

Cornelissen, J.H.C., Diez, P.C. & Hunt, R. (1996) Seedling growth, allocation and leaf attributes in a wide range of woody plant species and types. Journal of Ecology, 84, 755-765.

 

Cornelissen, J.H.C., Lavorel, S., Garnier, E., Díaz, S., Buchmann, N., Gurvich, D.E., Reich, P.B., ter Steege, H., Morgan, H.D., van der Heijden, M.G.A. & Pausas, J.G. (2003) A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 51, 335-380.

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Couvreur, M., Cosyns, E., Hermy, M. & Hoffmann, M. (2005) Complementarity of epi- and endozoochory of plant seeds by free ranging donkeys. Ecography, 28, 37-48.

 

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Couvreur, M., Verheyen, K., Vellend, M., Lamoot, I., Cosyns, E., Hoffmann, M. & Hermy, M. (2008) Epizoochory by large herbivores: merging data with models. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 204-212.

 

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Figuerola, J. & Green, A.J. (2002) Dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterbirds: a review of past research and priorities for future studies. Freshwater Biology, 47, 483-494.

 

Figuerola, J. & Green, A.J. (2002) How frequent is external transport of seeds and invertebrate eggs by waterbirds? A study in Donana, SW Spain. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, 155, 557-565.

 

Figuerola, J., Green, A.J. & Santamaria, L. (2002) Comparative dispersal effectiveness of wigeongrass seeds by waterfowl wintering in south-west Spain: quantitative and qualitative aspects. Journal of Ecology, 90, 989-1001.

 

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Frey, W., Heinz, S., Hensen, I. & Pfeiffer, T. (1999) Nahausbreitung bei Pflanzen - Ermittlung der Ausbreitungsweiten von Diasporen mittels Klebfallen. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 121, 75-84.

 

Fuchs, H., Kees, H. & Bihler, E. (1978) Unkraut und fremde Kultursamen im Gräser-Saatgut und Folgerungen aus der Sicht der Unkrautbekämpfung. Gesunde Pflanzen, 30, 169-173.

 

Fuchs, H., Kees, H., Kanzler, K. & Strehler, A. (1979) Samen von Unkräutern und fremden Kulturpflanzen in Getreidesaatgutproben zur Verbesserung der Reinheit von Getreidepartien. Bayerisches Landwirtschaftliches Jahrbuch, 5, 543-561.

 

Gardener, C.J., McIvor, J.G. & Jansen, A. (1993) Passage of legume and grass seeds through the digestive tract of cattle and their survival in faeces. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 63-74.

 

Gardener, C.J., McIvor, J.G. & Jansen, A. (1993) Survial of seeds of tropical grassland species subjected to bovine digestion. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 75-85.

 

Gardner, G. (1977) Reproductive Capacity of Fraxinus-Excelsior on Derbyshire Limestone. Journal of Ecology, 65, 107-118.

 

Garrison, W.J., Miller, G.L. & Raspet, R. (2000) Ballistic Seed Projection in Two Herbaceous Species. American Journal of Botany, 87, 1257-1264.

 

Ghersa, C.M., Martinezghersa, M.A., Satorre, E.H., Vanesso, M.L. & Chichotky, G. (1993) Seed Dispersal, Distribution and Recruitment of Seedlings of Sorghum-Halepense (L) Pers. Weed Research, 33, 79-88.

 

Godoy, J.A. & Jordano, P. (2001) Seed dispersal by animals: exact identification of source trees with endocarp DNA microsatellites. Molecular Ecology, 10, 2275-2283.

 

Godwin, H. (1923) Dispersal of pond floras. Journal of Ecology, 11, 160-164.

 

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Websites

 

 

http://www.agroatlas.ru

 

http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/index.html

 

http://www.bayernflora.de

 

http://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/bioinformatics/en/

 

http://www.biolib.cz

 

http://www.borealforest.org

 

http://www.botany.cz

 

http://www.bromsqueensland.com

 

http://www.catalogueoflife.org

 

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu

 

http://www.chileflora.com

 

http://clopla.butbn.cas.cz/

 

http://www.conifers.org

 

http://crdp.ac-besancon.fr/flore/flore.htm

 

http://www.crsf.ch

 

http://www.ct-botanical-society.org

 

http://data.kew.org/sid

 

http://database.prota.org/search.htm

 

http://www.delta-intkey.com/www/data.htm

 

http://demo1.tmag.tas.gov.au

 

http://www.efloras.org

 

http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

 

http://www.eol.org

 

http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/

 

http://flora.nhm-wien.ac.at

 

http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/

 

http://www.floraweb.de

 

http://fna.huh.harvard.edu

 

http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/index.html

 

http://herbaribcn.ub.es/

 

http://www.hortipedia.com

 

http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info

 

http://www.ipni.org

 

http://www.itis.gov

 

http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weedguide/

 

http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

 

http://www.plants.usda.gov/java/

 

http://www.rbge.org.uk/databases

 

http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/plant_info/Plant_databases

 

http://www.theplantlist.org

 

http://theseedsite.co.uk/

 

http://www.tropicos.org

 

http://www.ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepsonflora/

 

http://www.vplants.org/

 

http://www.wikipedia.org

 

http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/our_products/databases

 

http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

 

http://www.zipcodezoo.com